Only a small fraction of amateur astronomers participate in professional research, but they have made, and continue to make important contributions to the field. There are a number of ways to get started in amateur research. The Z CamPaign studies a type of variable star little-studied before the observing program began in Along with their own photometric all-sky survey of the night sky, individual projects like the Z CamPaign keep the organization relevant as technological advances usher astronomy into the modern era. Another, more recent project is Target Asteroids!
Category Amrature Portal Commons. Wireless Institute of Australia. They talk a lot about laser safety and not pointing them at airplanes, but they're in pretty broad use. All photos, unless otherwise noted: Dane Webster. If you absolutely must spend some money on something I know sometimes if I drop Ameature joining methods few bucks on a new hobby I feel obliged to see it throughbuy a Planisphere.
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Tags: flawless joinflawless yarn joiningyarn joinyarn joining technique. Secondly, to dissolve any metallic oxides which may already be present or may be formed during the Brazing operation. Consumers have access to a number of different methods to join plastic materials together. The holes in the plates are either punched light gauge sheet or drilled in heavy section. Be sure to keep it pinched between your thumb and pointer finger. Solvent bonding involves coating plastics with a solvent and clamping them together. The strength of weld mainly depends upon the molecular union. Brazing 3. Best of Escorts bwi laurelit is the most secure yarn joining method that I have ever used. Come and join! Tinning is an operation in which a molecular Ameature joining methods between the Bronze filler metal and the base metal is achieved. Check out my 7 Tips and Tricks to be a Better Crocheter post to learn more Ameature joining methods hacks like this!
This guide will introduce you to every aspect of astronomy—the study of our wonderful cosmos—in 10 steps!
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Astronomy is the study of the stars, planets, and other celestial objects that populate the sky. It is an endlessly fascinating field, the oldest of the natural sciences , and one of the few areas of science that amateurs can directly assist the professionals. It is open and accessible for any level of interest and involvement, from folks who just want to learn how to recognize the constellations all the way to near pros with telescopes worth more than their houses.
My goal in this instructable is to provide a set of resources for anyone interested in getting started with this hobby, in the form of a step by step guide for someone who just isn't sure where to begin. When I got started a few years ago, I couldn't find any guides like this that really made sense to me, so in a way this is written to my past self. If I had this guide, I could have avoided a lot of trouble, pitfalls, useless purchases, and dead ends.
Furthermore, I've been interested in astronomy since I was little, but I always assumed it was an expensive hobby that I couldn't afford to get into--I was wrong, and I wish someone had been there to tell me! If you can think of anything I should add to this guide, make sure to leave a comment below--if I use your suggestion, I'll send you a DIY patch.
If I think it's a big enough suggestion or oversight on my part, I'll also send you a coupon for a three month pro membership. Also, as I live in the northern hemisphere and only see the northern sky, if you're reading this from a southern hemisphere perspective, I encourage you to write a supplementary southern hemisphere version of this instructable.
If it's up to my standards as determined solely by me and my whims I will link to it here and send you a coupon for a one year pro membership! I envy you, too, I'll probably never get to see the Magellanic Clouds. Finally, please lend me your vote in the Space Contest.
If you found this useful or interesting, cast a vote my way! Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. I put this step first because it's often the first thing people do, and I want to stop you before you go wrong. This is probably the biggest mistake I made, and a mistake that I believe a lot of people who are interested in astronomy make.
People who have been doing this for a while have a name for those telescopes--they call them hobby killers. Those things are incredibly difficult and frustrating to use, and aren't good for much except looking at the moon, and while that's definitely worth doing, don't take that step yet.
The one I bought was awful, I used it a couple of times and then put it away, convinced I was doing something wrong. It put at least a two year break between me deciding I wanted to get into astronomy and me actually doing so. You will probably want to get a telescope some day, but you really don't need one yet, and you most definitely don't know what kind you want.
There is a wealth of options out there, and you should take some time to learn about them before you settle on one to buy more on that in a later step. If you absolutely must spend some money on something I know sometimes if I drop a few bucks on a new hobby I feel obliged to see it through , buy a Planisphere.
This is a very useful resource you will come back to over and over again, and worth the few dollars it will cost. They are very cheap these days, and if you're planning on involving anyone else in your hobby they are great for pointing out what you're looking at.
Also, they're fun! Before anything else except stopping your telescope purchasing urge , start looking up at every chance you get. It seems obvious, but you should really make a conscious effort to point your eyes at the skies. Go outside at least once every night. Start to familiarize yourself with the objects in the sky, you don't even need to know their names yet, just try to notice patterns.
Even if you live in a big city with terrible light pollution, it should be possible for you to pick out the more obvious objects, like Venus, the moon, Jupiter, Orion , the Big Dipper , the Pleiades , and the North Star. Not all of these things will be visible all the time, but if you start spotting for them you will begin to notice how their positions change over the course of the year. In most cities, all of the night time lights that are set up ostensibly for your safety have a tendency to create a haze that blocks out all but the brightest of stars.
There are many ways that this can be combated, including working with the IDA to reduce light pollution, but what is boils down to is the fact that the night sky in the city is nothing like the night sky in the wilderness. I understood intellectually why people believed this, but through looking at the sky most nights and seeing how things move and change, I now understand it on a very visceral level.
When you look at the stars with the naked eye, it's quite clear that they're just points of light on a globe, the uppermost point of which rests at Polaris, the North Star, turning slowly from west to east. Not really of course, but it's a valid frame of reference for understanding the motions of the heavens in relation to the Earth. It really does look like a giant globe! Once you've started looking at the sky regularly, you'll probably want to get a feel for what you're looking at.
Thankfully, in these days of the internet, there are a lot of fantastic options for you! The absolute best and at the same time, the most basic website for this is the Your Sky website. There, by inputting your location and the time you'll be outside observing, you can print off custom star charts to take outside with you. With one of these in hand, you can spot constellations, planets, whatever you like! I cannot recommend enough that you pick up a copy of Stellarium , the free planetarium software.
It is simply amazing! Using Stellarium, you can set it for your location, then it will show you what is going on overhead. You can increase or decrease the light pollution, to make it more resemble where you are, and turn on or off the constellations, planets, nebulae, and star names. It allows you to zoom into the future or the past or get a closeup on a deep sky object. Google Sky is another tool useful for this and it doesn't require a download , but I believe Stellarium is better.
I'm not familiar with it myself, but looking over the website, it looks pretty cool! If you're into podcasts or audiobooks, definitely check out the excellent Astronomycast. The hosts, Fraser Cain and Dr. Pamela Gay will spend half an hour or so talking about a specific astronomical subject, or just answering listener questions.
It makes for great mp3 player material while you're spending time looking up at the stars! The daysofastronomy podcast is also great, though much less focused. I also like to read a couple of blogs to keep up to date on astronomical issues.
I really like Phil Plait's Bad Astronomy blog at discovery, he's fun and knowledgeable and clearly holds a deep wonder about the universe. Also, and this may or may not be up your alley, he got his start in blogging debunking the idiots who think we never went to the moon, so he often tackles other scientific issues of a skeptical nature rather than just astronomy. My other favorite is Universe Today , where you will find a wealth of excellent and interesting articles about all things astronomical--the publisher is Fraser Cain, the same guy who co-hosts Astronomycast.
What I've seen is really good, I just don't sit down to watch video all that often. Can anyone recommend a really good internet show about astronomy? If you're more interested in physical media, definitely make a trip to the library.
I have particularly enjoyed The Urban Astronomer , it has been helpful for me, living in a very light polluted area. Also, don't be embarrassed to peruse the kid's section! There are a lot of great books there to help out beginners! At this point, you still don't want to buy a telescope, but binoculars might be a good investment. Binoculars are nice because you can use them for other things than just astronomy, as it's always nice to have a pair around when you're out in the wilderness.
They aren't steady like a telescope, but with some practice they are great for getting a bit of detail on the moon, the planets, or even the Orion nebula. I've spent a few evenings just lying in the back yard and exploring the sky, nothing really on the agenda, just looking up through the binoculars. Binoculars are particularly good at teasing more detail out of naked eye objects such as the Moon and the planets, or at splitting easy binaries like Mizar and Alcor in the handle of the Big Dipper.
I've recently posted an 'ible about how to build a simple solar projection rig. This is a great way to use your binoculars to observe our closest stellar neighbor! So far, I've used them to take a look at a solar eclipse , and once the clouds clear up here, I'll hopefully be able to take a look at some sunspots , and one June 5 , I'll use this setup to observe the last transit of Venus until !
There are a lot of resources for how to locate something in the night sky--but I tend to glaze over when a source starts going on about "Right Ascension" or "Declination". I honestly haven't taken the time to learn about this method of celestial navigation. I'm going to do so eventually, but at this point I have been successful with less precise ways of determining location. What I do like is degrees above the horizon, as most resources for amateur astronomers will give you a rough direction to look for your target and let you know how far above the horizon it can be found.
Therefore, if you stack one fist on another, it takes about 9 to get to directly over head, which is 90 degrees. One finger makes about 2 degrees. Therefore, if something is described as being about 24 degrees above the horizon, that means it is two fists and two fingers above the horizon.
The neat thing is that this works for anyone, no matter how big they are, as someone with small hands will tend to have short arms, and therefore their hand is closer to their eyes and still takes up about 10 degrees. This is the point at which you move on to the next level.
Getting involved in an astronomy club was a big step for me, as I'm really shy in person and have a very hard time interacting with people I don't know. Still, it was a very beneficial experience, and though I've stayed away for a while due to time constraints on the evening they do meetings, I am planning on getting back into it.
The Eugene Astronomical Society has a web page, but they aren't listed on several of the aggregators. I didn't even realize we had an astronomy club until quite a while after I'd been doing astronomy in my back yard. It turned out that not only do they have a monthly meeting where they talk about astronomy, have guest speakers, do telescope workshops, etc, they also have monthly star parties!
Each friday nearest the new moon, the EAS brings a bunch of telescopes up to college hill here in town and point them at the sky. In fact, last weekend was the annual Dark Sky Party, outside of town at a state park, where we got to see some really great things in a really dark sky--it was amazing! Being involved in an astronomy club has a lot of benefits. You get to go to the meetings and the parties, but many clubs also offer help with your telescope and even lend telescopes from their collection.
Perhaps most importantly, you'll be joining a group of people who are enthusiastic about the same subject you are interested in and more than willing to "talk shop" with you.
My local club also has an email mailing list that has more than once given me a heads up about some interesting thing coming up in the night sky. I just reread this section, and realized that the way I've worded things makes it seem like you have to be an active member to attend, but the monthly star parties are more for public outreach than for members. Find out when and where they are, and just stop on by!
At this point, you are probalby considering investing in a telescope. Definitely attend the star parties, and try out different scopes that the members bring.
It can be easily separated after heating of the welded bronze metal. This is the simplest way of joining plastics. Hot stepmom Cassidy loves to join in on sweet couple fucking , Plastics like polypropylene that are difficult to weld are usually bonded by induction welding. Welding is seen everywhere—No welding, No industry. Step One: Pinch both of the ends that you are joining between your pointer and thumb finger.
Ameature joining methods. Flawless Yarn Joining Method
Vibration welding is efficient but is often only employed when other bonding methods are impractical. Vibration welding involves joining two plastics and vibrating one of them. The vibrations create friction, which heats the plastics and welds them together. To perform an induction weld, plastics are placed around a metal object and run through a magnetic field, which causes the plastics to heat and weld together.
Mechanical fastening is used when precision bonding is not required. This is the simplest way of joining plastics. Mechanical fastening is more suited for joining stronger plastics. Mechanical fastening involves joining plastics together with simple fasteners like latches and nails. Updated April 24, But in Soft Soldering no extra heat is required. One point should be remembered—only thinner parts can be soldered by this process.
A thin sheet, like Galvanized sheet, may be joined to another Mechanical process by Riveting and by Soldering to Soft Soldering.
Before Soldering, the parts should be cleaned with ACID Zinc Chloride solution or liquid Fluxes to remove dust, oil and grease, and other foreign metals. The Soft Soldering Iron is heated by an open hearth furnace or by electrically. Thinner parts of Tin, Copper, Brass, Aluminium, etc. An electronic part of Television has been disconnected at the inside, wire. How and what measure would you take to repair the same? Name the type of Solder which would be required to join the T. Brazing produces a much stronger joint than soft soldering but requires greater heat from Oxy-acetylene flame.
But it should be remembered that it is a temporary joint. It can be easily separated after heating of the welded bronze metal. The Bronze or Brass filler rod should be coated with a flux of a deoxidizing agent. Moreover, the operation Tinning is very important in Bronze welding or Brazing. By moving the flame around the starting point of the weld, the base metal gradually becomes red hot. Tinning is an operation in which a molecular union between the Bronze filler metal and the base metal is achieved.
The strength of weld mainly depends upon the molecular union. Flux is a chemical compound or mixture of deoxidizing agent used as powder, paste, liquid, granular, and gaseous. The flux employed in Brazing operations depends entirely upon the type of operation and the Brazing alloy being employed. When metals are heated in contact with air, oxygen from oxides cause poor quality low strength welds, or, in some cases, may even make welding impossible.
For this reason it is generally desirable to add a flux to the welding area— this being a substance capable of dissolving the oxide. The reason is that mild steel contains considerably, more silicon and manganese which act as deoxidizing and fluxing agents. No single flux is suitable for all metals. So it is necessary to choose a flux developed specially for the particular metal being welded. For ferrous materials, borax, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium silicate have been found to give excellent results, together with small additions of vigorous deoxidizing substances.
The borax forms compound with iron oxide whilst the carbonate is a cleanser and promotes fluidity. For copper and copper alloy mixtures of sodium and potassium borates, carbonates, chlorides, sulphate, and boric acid have been found suitable for removing cuprous oxide, thus preventing mechanically unsafe welds.
Flux for aluminium consists of alkaline fluorides, chlorides, and bi-sulphates. For magnesium alloy, the fluxes are similar in composition to those used for aluminium and its alloys. All fluxes are chemically active and very corrosive. It is, therefore, essential to remove all traces of flux from the finished weld.
The flux residue may be removed by recovering the weld repeatedly with hot water, steam or by the use of picking baths. Firstly, Flux serves several purposes. Flux acts as a good insulator and concentrates heat in a relatively small welding zone—thus improving the fusion of the welding rod and the melted parent metal.
Secondly, the molten portion of the flux floats as a liquid blanket over the molten pool of the electrode and parent metal, protecting it from the atmosphere and reducing to a minimum its pick-up of Oxygen and Nitrogen. Thirdly, the flux acts as a cleanser for the weld metal, absorbing impurities and adding alloying elements such as manganese and silicon.
Consequently, the weld metal is clean and has excellent physical properties. Basically there are three types of fluxes which are used for three of the five types of Brazing alloys:. Borax flux is employed with the copper zinc Brazing alloys.
The correct type of Borax to use is fused borax — Borax glass — to which, in some instances, boric may be added.
Amateur astronomy - Wikipedia
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