Human sperm count under the microscope-Semen analysis - Wikipedia

The presence of sperm-head vacuoles has been suspected to be deleterious to the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology ART. It is difficult to accurately distinguish morphologically abnormal sperm with vacuoles under a light microscope. This study was performed to analyze the result of the observation of sperm-head vacuoles using Papanicolaou staining under a light microscope and whether the male partner's age affects these vacuoles. The criteria for the sperm-head vacuoles were those given in the World Health Organization manual. For the analysis of the age factor, the participants were divided into the following groups: years, years, years, years, and years.

Human sperm count under the microscope

Introduction In the field of Human sperm count under the microscope reproductive technology ARTthe single best motile spermatozoon should be selected, especially when performing intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSIalthough there are limitations in the ability to detect spermatozoon with potential fertility under a light microscope without the use of denaturation [ 1—4 ]. Research Microscope Cameras. Morphology is a predictor of success in fertilizing oocytes during in vitro fertilization. Sperm organelle morphologic abnormalities: contributing factors and effects on intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles outcomes. Conclusion A majority of the sperm-head vacuoles showed a statistically significant difference among normal morphology groups. Gemological Microscopes. Circumcision Penectomy Penile prosthesis Preputioplasty. In the field of assisted reproductive technology ARTthe single best motile spermatozoon should be selected, especially when performing intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSIalthough Human sperm count under the microscope are limitations in the ability to detect spermatozoon with potential fertility under a light microscope without the use of denaturation [ 1—4 ]. Meanwhile, there was no statistically significant difference observed in the proportion of sperm-head vacuoles across any of the age groups.

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Sperm cell under the microscope makes this clear. Corrective measures and pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization in patients with severe sperm morphology abnormalities. Corresponding author: Ju Tae Seo. What number of sperm cells are discharged when a person discharges? For men who find it difficult to achieve orgasm and ejaculate in the clinic environment, some clinics allow the male partner to complete sperm retrieval at home. But it needs to be done right with a good microscope. The top-level classification domain Prokaryota includes bacteria and the set of organisms once called archaebacteria Humaj. This is because the best quality portion of the semen is ejaculated first and may not be captured using this technique, but also because vaginal fluid can affect the quality of the semen sample. Thus men with this condition have little chance of conceiving naturally, through intrauterine insemination or Human sperm count under the microscope vitro fertilisation. How much do you think about sperm cells? A needle is ccount inserted into a suitable area of the scrotum What is pantyhose sperm are aspirated Hukan the needle.

By Jessica Hamzelou.

  • Couples who are having difficulty in trying to conceive may need to evaluate the male partner's sperm count.
  • How to view sperm via microscope?
  • The presence of sperm-head vacuoles has been suspected to be deleterious to the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology ART.
  • Sperm is the male gamete , that is, the male sex cell , or the cell in males which has the capacity to fertilise an egg i.
  • Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more.
  • Cells are the smallest and simplest structures that manifest all of the traits scientists agree signify "life.

Andrologists use a semen analysis microscope to view both the quality and the quantity of sperm to help determine male fertility.

Semen samples must be kept warm with a heating stage in order to keep the semen living during analysis. When viewing living samples, phase contrast microscopy is used to avoid harming the sample. Other samples are often stained in order to better view the sample.

This is typically done once it is not important for the sample to remain alive anymore. The image below is a stained sample of human sperm that was captured for semen quality testing in a clinical laboratory.

Microscope World offers several Semen analysis microscopes each of which include phase contrast so that staining the sperm is not required. Each semen analysis microscope also includes a heating stage to keep samples living while analyzing the sperm. A digital HD andrology semen analysis microscope is also available in both a basic model and an advanced microscope model.

If you have questions regarding the use of microscopes in andrology or specific semen analysis microscope questions contact Microscope World and we will be happy to help. Swift Microscope World The Swift brand of scopes. Motic Microscope The Motic brand of scopes. Your shopping cart is empty. Need Assistance? Stereo Boom Microscopes. Measuring Microscopes. Stereo Articulated Arm Microscopes. Digital Stereo Zoom Microscopes. Stereo Microscopes.

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Andrology Semen Analysis Microscopes. Photo Credit: Bob J. Categories Blog.

Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, ver. Results The percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with normal sperm morphology group A vs. What number of sperm cells are discharged when a person discharges? Chat or rant, adult content, spam, insulting other members, show more. Make sure you do not waste time with cheap microscopes. Calibrate the microscope by using the test slide.

Human sperm count under the microscope

Human sperm count under the microscope. References

From head to tail, human sperm cells measure around 50 micrometers 0. The smallest portion that you can see with your unaided eyes is around 0. A human egg is around 30 times greater—sufficiently large to be seen with the exposed eye. What are the parts of a sperm cell? At one time, individuals thought that sperm cells contained tiny people known as homunculi or animalcules.

Now, we realize that sperm contain not little people, but rather DNA. Try to eat more healthy vitamins like vitamin B12 to help make your sperm healthier and stronger.

How quickly do sperm swim? Sperm cell under the microscope makes this clear. Sperm cells swim around 0. That is a great deal speedier than it sounds, considering how small they are. How do sperm know where to go? Researchers find that sperm cells locate a ready egg cell through two or three complex components.

Below are some details to know:. This is one truth and the benefits are very interesting. When the sperm cell diagram is checked, this is made very clear. This is why most men do not like to discharge their sperm. The human sperm cell is haploid, with the goal that its 23 chromosomes can join the 23 chromosomes of the female egg to frame a diploid cell.

In warm blooded creatures, sperm is created in the testicles and is discharged from the penis. Generally, the cost of these microscopes are always high. This is why you need to decide if you want to buy one or not.

If you decide you want to make the purchase that is one thing that will help you decide. Posted in More of Semen by admin Reviewed 2 February, Sperm cell under microscope tells many details Read on for more sperm cell details to further educate you.

Sperm and semen under a microscope makes parts clear What are the parts of a sperm cell? Sperm cell under microscope shows where they go How quickly do sperm swim? This study was performed to analyze the result of the observation of sperm-head vacuoles using Papanicolaou staining under a light microscope and whether the male partner's age affects these vacuoles.

The criteria for the sperm-head vacuoles were those given in the World Health Organization manual. For the analysis of the age factor, the participants were divided into the following groups: years, years, years, years, and years.

The percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with normal sperm morphology group A vs. In the case of the age factor, a statistically significant difference was not observed across any of the age groups.

A majority of the sperm-head vacuoles showed a statistically significant difference among normal morphology groups. Therefore, we should consider the probability of the percentage of sperm-head vacuoles not increasing with age but with abnormal sperm morphology. A further study is required to clarify the effect of the sperm-head vacuoles on ART outcomes. Semen analysis provides comprehensive information of the reproductive function of a male patient. It includes assessments of the sperm count, motility, viability, and morphology.

The sperm count and motility patterns can be objectively examined using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer CASA system. Recently, the use of Kruger's strict criteria for the analysis of the sperm morphology has become the new standard in this field [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ].

However, the analysis of sperm morphology is subjective and particularly difficult to standardize; in fact, a number of difficulties related to the lack of objectivity including a variation in interpretation have already been reported [ 6 ].

Normal spermatozoa have been defined, and sperm-head vacuoles have been described as a new abnormality [ 7 , 8 ]. Vacuoles in the sperm head have been reported to be associated with DNA fragmentation [ 9 , 10 , 11 ], aneuploidy [ 12 , 13 ], and chromatin defects [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. However, the origin of these vacuoles is still debated [ 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 16 , 17 , 18 ].

The presence of large vacuoles in the sperm head has been suspected to have deleterious effects on the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology ART [ 8 , 11 , 19 , 20 , 21 ]. To clearly identify a vacuole in the sperm head, high-magnification interference contrast microscopy or motile sperm organelle morphology examination MSOME has been used widely.

These techniques are used for optimal sperm selection before intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection IMSI [ 22 ]. Semen quality was assessed for all the men examined. The mean age of the patients was Semen was collected by masturbation into a sterile plastic cup after a period of days of sexual abstinence.

For the semen analysis, the semen specimen was left for at least 30 minutes at room temperature for liquefaction. The sperm characteristics volume, count, motility, viability, and morphology and the criteria for the sperm-head vacuoles were assessed using the World Health Organization WHO guidelines [ 6 ].

The classification used considered all borderline forms abnormal morphology. The post-acrosomal region should not contain any vacuoles. One of these criteria of vacuoles was observed and was considered the sperm-head vacuole Figure 1.

Further, for the analysis of the age factor, patients were divided into the following age categories: years, years, years, years, and years. The arrow indicates a nuclear vacuole. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, ver.

Each parameter was compared among the groups by using one-way analysis of variance. The overall results of the conventional semen analysis were as follows: the semen volume was 3.

In particular, the percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with the percentage of normal sperm morphology. Further, we observed the influence of male age on the semen quality and the sperm-head vacuoles Table 2.

In the case of the age factor, a statistically significant difference was not observed in normal sperm morphology and sperm-head vacuoles across any of the five groups. For the evaluation of sperm morphology, Kruger et al. Recently, sperm-head vacuoles have been described as a new abnormality [ 7 , 8 ] in male infertility.

The proportion of these vacuoles is known to increase with an increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology [ 13 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ]. Many reports have shown that a nuclear origin and the presence of large vacuoles are associated with an increase in the DNA fragmentation [ 9 , 10 , 12 ]. However, the other data are in agreement with chromatin condensation defects [ 13 , 14 , 16 ] and are related to an increase in the aneuploidy rates [ 13 ].

The morphologically abnormal sperm and the presence of nuclear vacuoles seemed to have a negative impact on fertilization, embryo quality [ 19 , 30 , 31 , 32 ], and the later stages of zygote development in the ICSI cycles [ 8 , 20 , 29 , 33 , 34 ]. Further, the percentage of spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles LNVs significantly increased with a deterioration of the semen quality.

A number of LNVs exhibited a significant negative correlation with the above mentioned sperm parameters in routine semen analysis [ 35 ]. A modified Papanicolaou staining method gives good staining of spermatozoa and other cells [ 6 ]. It stains pale blue in the acrosomal region and dark blue in the post-acrosomal regions of the head. Excess residual cytoplasm is stained pink or red.

The midpiece shows some red staining, and the tail is stained blue or reddish. Further, it is possible to observe the details necessary for the morphological classification; therefore, we used the modified Papanicolaou staining method for the observation of sperm morphology. Further, we assessed the presence of vacuoles in the sperm head according to the normal morphology rate. However, contrary to expectations, the proportion of these vacuoles increased with an increase in the rate of normal sperm morphology group A vs.

In the present result, the percentage of vacuoles in group A was lower than that in groups B and C, and although the exact cause of the increase in the proportion of sperm-head vacuoles in the normal sperm could not be identified, we should consider the probability that morphologically normal sperm possess vacuoles in the head.

Meanwhile, there was no statistically significant difference observed in the proportion of sperm-head vacuoles across any of the age groups. Further investigations seem to be necessary to compare our observations and the sperm nucleus maturity evaluated with the aniline blue-eosin staining method [ 36 ], and to further define the relationship between the sperm-head vacuoles and the ART outcomes.

We should consider the probability of the proportion of sperm-head vacuoles not increasing with age but increasing with the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology.

A further study needs to clarify the effects of these vacuoles on the semen parameters and identify an optimal predictive indicator of ART outcomes. The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the staff of the Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine. No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Clin Exp Reprod Med. Published online Sep Find articles by Yong-Seog Park.

Find articles by Sol Park. Find articles by Duck Sung Ko. Find articles by Dong Wook Park. Find articles by Ju Tae Seo.

Find articles by Kwang Moon Yang. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Corresponding author: Yong-Seog Park.

The presence of sperm-head vacuoles has been suspected to be deleterious to the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology ART. It is difficult to accurately distinguish morphologically abnormal sperm with vacuoles under a light microscope.

This study was performed to analyze the result of the observation of sperm-head vacuoles using Papanicolaou staining under a light microscope and whether the male partner's age affects these vacuoles. The criteria for the sperm-head vacuoles were those given in the World Health Organization manual. For the analysis of the age factor, the participants were divided into the following groups: years, years, years, years, and years.

The percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with normal sperm morphology group A vs. In the case of the age factor, a statistically significant difference was not observed across any of the age groups. A majority of the sperm-head vacuoles showed a statistically significant difference among normal morphology groups.

Therefore, we should consider the probability of the percentage of sperm-head vacuoles not increasing with age but with abnormal sperm morphology. A further study is required to clarify the effect of the sperm-head vacuoles on ART outcomes. Semen analysis provides comprehensive information of the reproductive function of a male patient.

It includes assessments of the sperm count, motility, viability, and morphology. The sperm count and motility patterns can be objectively examined using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer CASA system.

Recently, the use of Kruger's strict criteria for the analysis of the sperm morphology has become the new standard in this field [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. However, the analysis of sperm morphology is subjective and particularly difficult to standardize; in fact, a number of difficulties related to the lack of objectivity including a variation in interpretation have already been reported [ 6 ].

Normal spermatozoa have been defined, and sperm-head vacuoles have been described as a new abnormality [ 7 , 8 ]. Vacuoles in the sperm head have been reported to be associated with DNA fragmentation [ 9 , 10 , 11 ], aneuploidy [ 12 , 13 ], and chromatin defects [ 14 , 15 , 16 ]. However, the origin of these vacuoles is still debated [ 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 16 , 17 , 18 ].

The presence of large vacuoles in the sperm head has been suspected to have deleterious effects on the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology ART [ 8 , 11 , 19 , 20 , 21 ]. To clearly identify a vacuole in the sperm head, high-magnification interference contrast microscopy or motile sperm organelle morphology examination MSOME has been used widely.

These techniques are used for optimal sperm selection before intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection IMSI [ 22 ]. Semen quality was assessed for all the men examined. The mean age of the patients was Semen was collected by masturbation into a sterile plastic cup after a period of days of sexual abstinence.

For the semen analysis, the semen specimen was left for at least 30 minutes at room temperature for liquefaction. The sperm characteristics volume, count, motility, viability, and morphology and the criteria for the sperm-head vacuoles were assessed using the World Health Organization WHO guidelines [ 6 ].

The classification used considered all borderline forms abnormal morphology. The post-acrosomal region should not contain any vacuoles. One of these criteria of vacuoles was observed and was considered the sperm-head vacuole Figure 1. Further, for the analysis of the age factor, patients were divided into the following age categories: years, years, years, years, and years. The arrow indicates a nuclear vacuole.

Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, ver. Each parameter was compared among the groups by using one-way analysis of variance.

The overall results of the conventional semen analysis were as follows: the semen volume was 3. In particular, the percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with the percentage of normal sperm morphology. Further, we observed the influence of male age on the semen quality and the sperm-head vacuoles Table 2. In the case of the age factor, a statistically significant difference was not observed in normal sperm morphology and sperm-head vacuoles across any of the five groups.

For the evaluation of sperm morphology, Kruger et al. Recently, sperm-head vacuoles have been described as a new abnormality [ 7 , 8 ] in male infertility. The proportion of these vacuoles is known to increase with an increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology [ 13 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ]. Many reports have shown that a nuclear origin and the presence of large vacuoles are associated with an increase in the DNA fragmentation [ 9 , 10 , 12 ].

However, the other data are in agreement with chromatin condensation defects [ 13 , 14 , 16 ] and are related to an increase in the aneuploidy rates [ 13 ]. The morphologically abnormal sperm and the presence of nuclear vacuoles seemed to have a negative impact on fertilization, embryo quality [ 19 , 30 , 31 , 32 ], and the later stages of zygote development in the ICSI cycles [ 8 , 20 , 29 , 33 , 34 ]. Further, the percentage of spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles LNVs significantly increased with a deterioration of the semen quality.

A number of LNVs exhibited a significant negative correlation with the above mentioned sperm parameters in routine semen analysis [ 35 ]. A modified Papanicolaou staining method gives good staining of spermatozoa and other cells [ 6 ]. It stains pale blue in the acrosomal region and dark blue in the post-acrosomal regions of the head. Excess residual cytoplasm is stained pink or red. The midpiece shows some red staining, and the tail is stained blue or reddish.

Further, it is possible to observe the details necessary for the morphological classification; therefore, we used the modified Papanicolaou staining method for the observation of sperm morphology. Further, we assessed the presence of vacuoles in the sperm head according to the normal morphology rate. However, contrary to expectations, the proportion of these vacuoles increased with an increase in the rate of normal sperm morphology group A vs.

In the present result, the percentage of vacuoles in group A was lower than that in groups B and C, and although the exact cause of the increase in the proportion of sperm-head vacuoles in the normal sperm could not be identified, we should consider the probability that morphologically normal sperm possess vacuoles in the head.

Meanwhile, there was no statistically significant difference observed in the proportion of sperm-head vacuoles across any of the age groups. Further investigations seem to be necessary to compare our observations and the sperm nucleus maturity evaluated with the aniline blue-eosin staining method [ 36 ], and to further define the relationship between the sperm-head vacuoles and the ART outcomes. We should consider the probability of the proportion of sperm-head vacuoles not increasing with age but increasing with the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology.

A further study needs to clarify the effects of these vacuoles on the semen parameters and identify an optimal predictive indicator of ART outcomes. The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the staff of the Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine.

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Clin Exp Reprod Med. Published online Sep Find articles by Yong-Seog Park. Find articles by Sol Park. Find articles by Duck Sung Ko. Find articles by Dong Wook Park. Find articles by Ju Tae Seo. Find articles by Kwang Moon Yang. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Corresponding author: Yong-Seog Park. Corresponding author: Ju Tae Seo. The Korean Society for Reproductive Medicine. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective The presence of sperm-head vacuoles has been suspected to be deleterious to the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology ART. Results The percentage of sperm-head vacuoles increased with normal sperm morphology group A vs.

Conclusion A majority of the sperm-head vacuoles showed a statistically significant difference among normal morphology groups. Keywords: Papanicolaou staining, Semen analysis, Sperm-head vacuole, Sperm morphology. Introduction Semen analysis provides comprehensive information of the reproductive function of a male patient. Methods 1. Patient characteristics and semen analysis Semen quality was assessed for all the men examined. Open in a separate window.

Figure 1. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, ver. Results The overall results of the conventional semen analysis were as follows: the semen volume was 3.

Table 1 Sperm parameters and proportion of sperm-head vacuoles. Table 2 Influence of male age on semen quality and proportion of sperm-head vacuoles. Discussion For the evaluation of sperm morphology, Kruger et al. Acknowledgments The authors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the staff of the Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine. Footnotes No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

References 1. Predictive value of abnormal sperm morphology in in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. Corrective measures and pregnancy outcome in in vitro fertilization in patients with severe sperm morphology abnormalities. Response of routine semen analysis and critical assessment of sperm morphology by Kruger classification to therapeutic varicocelectomy.

J Urol. A continuous quality control program for strict sperm morphology. Predictive value of normal sperm morphology in intrauterine insemination IUI : a structured literature review. Hum Reprod Update.

Human sperm count under the microscope

Human sperm count under the microscope

Human sperm count under the microscope