European facial structures-Identifying the ethnicity of a skull

Historically, craniofacial genetic research has understandably focused on identifying the causes of craniofacial anomalies and it has only been within the last 10 years, that there has been a drive to detail the biological basis of normal-range facial variation. This initiative has been facilitated by the availability of low-cost hi-resolution three-dimensional systems which have the ability to capture the facial details of thousands of individuals quickly and accurately. Simultaneous advances in genotyping technology have enabled the exploration of genetic influences on facial phenotypes, both in the present day and across human history. There are several important reasons for exploring the genetics of normal-range variation in facial morphology. The facial surface is readily visible and identifiable with a close relationship to the underlying cartilaginous and skeletal structures Stephan et al.

European facial structures

DNA can already tell us the sex Europeean ancestry of unknown individuals, but now an international team of researchers is beginning to connect genetics with facial features, degrees of femininity and racial admixture. A Bulgarian from Chepelare. Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling BRIMwe uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, European facial structures ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The Eiropean studies have provided insights into the genetic influences on facial shape. This individual is a Shluh Berber from the Sous, south- ern Morocco. FSCPs provide a means of translating face shape changes from the abstract face space into both visual representations into words.

Vintage cooler can. Introduction – Overview – Background

This type is recognized by Polish anthropo! The origin and Faciao of this type have not as yet been fully explained. The Uzbegs are Turkish-speaking inhabitants of the central Asiatic khanates, of mixed origin. It is the author's thesis that the Nordic race in Europe was caused by faial blending of the early Danubian Mediterranean strain with the later Corded element. One researcher suggested that the switch from sitting on the floor to sitting Western-style chairs has straightened out the backs of Koreans and made them taller. Rufous and exaggeratedly "Irish" in facial Eueopean. He said Native Americans were "red, choleric, upright" and "ruled by habit"; Europeans were "white, sanguine, muscular" and "ruled by custom"; Asians were "pale yellow, melancholy, stiff" and "ruled by belief"; and Brittany spears anorexic were "black, phlegmatic, relaxed" and "ruled by caprice. Only 11 per cent of Australians have a square shaped face, among them is super model Miranda Kerr. This stuctures European facial structures use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section of the US Copyright Law. This Baggara woman from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is less negroid than the majority. Diversity Among Peoples From a genetic perspective, grouping people by skin color or "race" doesn't have a foundation in science.

Historically, craniofacial genetic research has understandably focused on identifying the causes of craniofacial anomalies and it has only been within the last 10 years, that there has been a drive to detail the biological basis of normal-range facial variation.

  • People classified as Asians are physically different in some ways than people of European descent.
  • A European facial often called a classic facial in Europe is a thorough, deep cleansing treatment for the face and neck.
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Return to main page. Maps: Races of the world. Global Genetic Distances Map. Numbered plates from: Coon, Carleton S. Races of Europe. Greenwood Press, Or: Coon, Carleton S. The Origin of Races. Alfed A. Knopf, The Nordic race is a partially depigmented branch of the greater Mediterranean racial stock. It is probably a composite race made up of two or more basic Mediterranean strains, depigmented separately or in conjunction by a progressive evolutionary process.

Reduction of these overgrown races produces a result which is quite un-Nordic morphologically as well as in constitutional type.

It is the author's thesis that the Nordic race in Europe was caused by a blending of the early Danubian Mediterranean strain with the later Corded element. At the present time both Corded and Danubian elements may be isolated, while other Nordics preserve the blended form. Nordics in eastern Europe, Asia, and North Africa may have been formed by separate recombinations or simple depigmentations of comparable Mediterranean strains, or by invasions of these regions from an European or West Asiatic depigmentation center.

A Finn of predominantly Corded type; note the ash-blond hair and grayish eyes, the great head length, and extremely low cephalic index. In head and face proportions a resemblance is seen to the Corded-like Irano-Afghan sub-type, a resemblance which is enhanced if pigmentation differences are ignored Both metrically and morphologically this individual is seen to be fully Mediterranean; there is no evidence of Upper Palaeolithic admixture.

A Swede from Sonderhamn who represents the same type, and who is very similar in most dimensions. The population of most of Sweden is predominantly Nordic; typical Upper Palaeolithic survivors are numerous only along the southwestern coast. A Nordic Dane of Jutish parentage who also shows Corded predominance. His face is of extreme length, a trait common among ancient Corded crania.

This individual is the son of the classic Borreby man shown on Plate 5, Fig. Only through the agency of such segregation is it possible to present this collection of basic European racial photographs. New Englander of Colonial British descent. This tall, slenderly built, ash-blond-haired Nordic is an extreme example of the Corded type which entered Britain first during the Bronze Age in conjunction with brachycephals, and later during the Iron Age as an element in the Nordic invading groups.

In contrast to the last plate, the present one shows a series of Nordics in whom the Corded element is notably weak or absent, so that an approximation to the earlier, smaller-headed, mesocephalic Danubian strain is perhaps attained. The reason for qualification on this score is that not enough Danubian crania have been found and described to make this point certain.

A Norwegian from Drommen, near Oslo. The head is absolutely of moderate size, comparable to that of small brunet Mediterranean sub-varieties; the stature and bodily bulk are also small.

A mesocephalic Englishman from Southampton, whose small face, concave-profiled, round-tipped nasal form, and whose lack of angularity or bony extravagance in the cranial and facial skeleton, combined with a high vault, indicate a close similarity to the known skeletal remains of Neolithic Danubians. A Galician of mixed Ukrainian and Polish parentage; an excellent example of the Danubian type, bound to the soil since the Neolithic, which has reemerged throughout the entire length of the rich agricultural plain which stretches across southern Poland and Russia, while Nordics proper have for the most part moved elsewhere.

A Lithuanian, who although brachycephalic, belongs essentially to the same Danubian type. Plate All Upper palaeolithic survivors may be divided into two general groups a those who have been subjected to reduction in head size and bodily bulk, and who, have been partially foetalized in the course of the same process; and b those who retain the head size, bodily bulk, and masculinity of features characterstic of the Pleistocene hunters.

Most of the latter group are to be found in northwestern Europe. Dolichocephalic individuals who recapitulate the metrical and morphological qualities of the Cro-Magnon and Brunn-Predmost Aurignacian people are commonest in Scandinavia and in Ireland. In Scandinavia they are found concentrated along the southern Swedish coast in the neighborhood of Goteborg, and in the mountains of southwestern Norway.

A Swede from Trollhatton, southern Sweden. This man is both tall and heavy; of lateral bodily build. His head is of prodigious length, his face nearly as wide as his cranial vault; all dimensions of the face are great, especially the width of the mandible; the distance between the eyes, and the heaviness of the browridges, are likewise remarkable.

This individual recapitulates, as closely probably as any other living human being, the physical type of many of the hunters who lived in western and central Europe during the Laufen Interglacial and the last advance of the ice.

Note that in his case, as with most of his type, only a partial degree of blondism is present. Another Swede, in this case from Goteborg, a slightly less extreme example of the same type. Swedes of this type are habitually found in association with the sea. Both of these individuals, as well as Fig. Oslo, This Norwegian from the isolated mountain settlement of Valle in southwestern Norway represents the same basic type as the two men above; his face and mandible, however; are narrower; and his hair ash blond; admixture with Nordics is indicated.

The same conclusion is suggested in reference to this extremely long- faced and golden-haired Swede from Helsingborg. He is, however, much larger in head and face size, much heavier in body build, and heavier in the facial skeleton than any Nordic. The predominant strain is Upper Palaeolithic. In the same districts of southern Sweden where Brunn survivors are found, and across the Skaggerrak in Jutland, are found brachycephalic Upper Palaeolithic survivors, equally unreduced in head and body size, equally if not more lateral in bodily build.

The ancestors of, these people arrived on the western Baltic shores during the Late Mesolithic. Other colonies of them are to be found in the coastal districts of south- western Norway, and they form an element of primary importance in the population of Germany.

In general, their present distribution is wider than that of their dolicho- cephalic counterparts. A Dane from Jutland, very tall, heavy, lateral in build, with an enormous head and an extremely wide face. This individual is as exaggerated an ex- ample of the Borreby race as is 1 of the preceding plate of the Brunn race.

A Swede from Goteborg, representing more nearly the mean of the Borreby race as it is found today. Both this man and 1 are golden blond in hair color; the Borreby group seems to run lighter-haired than the Brunn. This individual, while less brachycephalic than many of his compatriots, especially those in the Jaeren district, shows an essential affiliation to the Borreby race. The apparent facial flatness and the formation of the region of the nasal tip and the upper lip look "Irish"; this is an Upper Palaeolithic facial condition common both to Scandinavians and to British of Upper Palaeolithic type.

A prominent Icelandic author, who presents the same facial features and belongs to the general Borreby racial type. Iceland was settled mainly from the coastal regions of Norway in which the Borreby race is prevalent; an important Irish increment may have added a similar racial element. A Finnish example of the Borreby race.

This Finn is more brachycephalic than most Borreby men; however his lateral bodily build, and his extreme breadth of face and mandible show that he is a trans-Baltic member. The Borreby race was a relatively late Mesolithic arrival in Scadinavia; its earlier seat was central Germany, with ramifications both to the east and the west.

Today it is probably the one most important racial element in much of northern and central Ger- many, with wide ramifications elsewhere. Its German form is, however, seldom as exaggerated as that in the north.

In this sense it is partly transitional to the Alpine race on the one hand, and to the Ladogan on the other. A concentration of a specialized and exaggerated Borreby type or types is found on the island of Fehmaran, between the Danish Archipelago and Germany.

The individual shown has especially heavy browridges and a great nasion depression. Others are often rounder-faced and usually show less exaggerated facial profiles. The browridges on this individual recall Upper Palaeolithic prototypes.

Dupertuis, Century of Progress. A German Borreby type with the excessive head breadth of mm. This width is greater than the lengths of some heads shown in this section. A characteristic West-German Borreby type, from Stuttgart. The southwest-German Borreby nucleus has mixed with all invaders from the initial Neolithic onwards. A metrically typical Borreby specimen, a White Russian from the region of Vilna.

The presence of this type to the southeast of the Baltic establishes its continuity between Germany and Finland. A North Italian from Lombardy, who, although brunet in hair color, conforms metrically and morphologically to the Borreby standard. He comes from typically Alpine and Dinaric territory. The Alpine race is a reduced Upper Palaeolithic survivor; Alpines are as a rule of but medium stature, and lateral in bodily build; their heads of moderate size and globu- lar; their faces characteristically round and their facial features slightly infantile.

Their pigmentation ranges from blond to brunet, but is usually intermediate. The Alpines represent a reemergence of a brachycephalized and partially foetalized Palaeolithic sur- vival in the central highland and forest zone of Europe and Asia, all the way from the Pyrenees to the Pamirs. Alpines are at the root of all or nearly all the brachycephalic racial types throughout this entire expanse of territory.

The Alpine territorial distribu- tion is not the result of an invasion or expansion, but of a parallel set of emergences. In Europe, southern Germany is the seat of one of the greatest Alpine concentrations in the continent. The best place in the world to find Alpines is in a Bavarian restaurant; that is where all four individuals on this plate were photographed and measured. A tall, curly-haired, and portly Alpine from the Hirschenberg, near Miesbach, Upper Bavaria; this individual might be considered the quintessence of a Bavarian.

An Alpine from the Spreewald, of German, not Wendish, origin. The low brachycephalic index, and the relative fineness of the facial features indicate a tendency in a Nordic direction. A Basque from Vizcaya, Spain. This blond Basque was rufous and freckled in childhood; his curly hair and facial features give him an Irish appearance.

Nevertheless his general racial classification is with the Alpine group. This is an un- common type for a Basque, since most of them are Atlanto-Mediterraneans and Dinarics. A perfect example of a French Alpine. This individual is a Parisian, but his mother came from the Pyrenees. A fully brunet Alpine, typical of southeastern Switzerland and northem Italy.

This step is meant to relax your mind and bring the therapeutic effects of the facial treatment together with the calming effects of the massage for a more unified rejuvenation experience. Both anthropometrically and morphologi- cally, the European and Asiatic Alpines are essentially identical. People classified as Asians are physically different in some ways than people of European descent. County Clare. From a genetic perspective, grouping people by skin color or "race" doesn't have a foundation in science. Although varying greatly in stature, different varieties of Mediterraneans do not, as types, attain the bulk, either in head or body size, of the unreduced Upper Palaeolithic group; tall Mediterraneans, whether or not depigmented partially depig- mented Mediterraneans are Nordics are usually slender. It is a specialized, locally differentiated Mediterranean racial form.

European facial structures

European facial structures

European facial structures

European facial structures

European facial structures. WHAT IS Classic European Facial?


Frontiers | Facial Genetics: A Brief Overview | Genetics

Features inherited from generation to generation are expressed in the morphology shape of the human skull. Many of these characteristics have evolved in response to environmental factors and analysis of the features of the skull can thus give an indication of the ancestry of an individual. Forensic anthropologists examine the morphology of the skull in great detail and take measurements of multiple individual facets. Determining the ethnicity of an individual from their skull often proves to be key to identifying who they were in life and has significant influence on other aspects of the forensic investigation such as facial reconstruction.

Individuals of European descent tend to have long narrow faces with fairly flat facial profiles and sharply angled nasal bones. Those of Asian ancestry have wider and shorter faces with prominent cheekbones whilst individuals of African descent have a wide nasal cavity and a prominent mouth region when viewed in profile.

The nasal aperture is narrow and lies high up on the face. The nasal bridge is pronounced and sharply angled. Teeth tend to be small and are set closely together. The nasal bridge is less pronounced than in European skulls. Asian skulls often have distinctive shovel-shaped upper incisors.

African skulls have more rectangular shaped orbits when compared to European and Asian skulls. The nasal aperture is wide and the nasal bridge is very flat. The jaw protrudes significantly from the rest of the face, a condition known as prognathism. The teeth are large with wider spacing between them than in other races. We use cookies to give you a better experience.

Search Search. Introductory offer ends on 31st of October at GMT. Find out more. Identifying the ethnicity of a skull. African African skulls have more rectangular shaped orbits when compared to European and Asian skulls. More courses you might like Learners who joined this course have also enjoyed these courses. The Open University. Find out how musicians turn the notation of a musical score into a memorable performance. Change how you listen to music. Join free. Part of a degree. Coventry University.

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View all courses. Large teeth with wider spacing than other races. The jaw protrudes from the maxilla-prognathism.

European facial structures

European facial structures