Genital survey-WHO | Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices

This study, reported in The Lancet in [1], provides a wealth of information which shows clearly that women who have undergone FGM are much more likely to suffer obstetric complications at childbirth than women who have not been subject to the procedure. The study, which was conducted in six African countries by a WHO collaborative group, also showed that the risk of obstetric complications was higher when the FGM was more extensive. A summary is available without registration. A pre-print copy of the full article has been made available by WHO from the link below. Twenty-eight centres in both rural and urban areas were involved in the study.

Genital survey

Genital survey

Genital survey

Genital survey

Forty-nine ICRH: Findings of a pilot study. Italy a Full size table. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Women with FGM were also more likely Genital survey those without to require sutvey extended stay in hospital. Twenty-eight centres in both rural and urban areas were involved in the Genltal. However, the researchers suggest that since FGM leads to varying amounts of scar tissue which is less elastic than the Genital survey and vaginal tissue would normally be, this scar tissue may cause differing degrees of obstruction and tears or episiotomy. Comprehensive gynaecology in the tropics. Italy

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For Bethany R. More than half the women in the study said that spending time to build arousal, having a partner who knows what they like and emotional intimacy contributed to better orgasms. Most women have issues with the way their genitals look, woman want their pussies to look their best! Do you provide Genital survey material in your clinic or hospital wards, which would encourage women from refugee or immigrant groups who are experiencing long term effects of FGM, to voluntarily seek treatment? In most surveys, eligible respondents are all girls and women aged 15 to Genial Several important factors should be considered when examining trends in the practice: Variations in the number of years between consecutive surveys. By Amelia Thomson-DeVeaux. Are you, your clinic or hospital in Genital survey partnership with a community based organization, or other service provider for African immigrants, in order to reach this population? The practice is also found in pockets Genital survey Europe and in Australia and Suvey America which, for the last several decades, have been destinations for migrants from countries where Porn american built torrent practice Genihal occurs [8]. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below. A majority 51 percent of respondents — both male and female — reported that they groom their pubic hair because it makes them feel more attractive and only 7 percent cite a partner's preference as the primary reason for hair removal. Conclusions should be drawn on the basis of both measures. The following discussion pertains to Section E of the survey which attempts to assess Pho tran degree Genital survey accuracy by which penis size is estimated. When the women were asked about what pattern of stimulation they enjoyed, most indicated that a repeated rhythmic motion was ideal. Adult dance classes in albany ny you treat women or girls who have undergone the procedure of Genital survey

LONDON Thomson Reuters Foundation - The practice of female genital mutilation has fallen dramatically in northern Iraq, campaigners said on Monday as they urged religious leaders to use sermons and fatwas to help stamp out the ancient ritual.

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  • But although the concept of "manscaping" has become popular enough to spawn its own catchy name, a new survey found that men still expect more from their partners when it comes to grooming down below.

Female genital mutilation is known to exist especially in many third world countries including Nigeria with many women being victims of this harmful practice and its complications. The practice is rife in Southeast Nigeria and efforts have been made to discourage it. To determine women's views on aspects of female genital mutilation and the prevalence among the study population. Women attending the antenatal clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Southeast Nigeria were interviewed by means of structured pre-tested interviewer- administered questionnaires.

The data obtained were analysed using SPSS version The prevalence of FGM was However, only A larger proportion There is a high opinion against the practice of FGM in Southeast Nigeria, with the majority of the women showing support for legislation against it.

Female Genital Mutilation FGM or female circumcision is one of those traditional practices whose origin can be traced to antiquity. Even though it was first discovered in Egyptian mummies about BC, it is practiced on all the continents of the world. Various reasons have been given for the practice of FGM in these different geographical and cultural settings ranging from culture, religion to superstition. The international movement against FGM gained momentum in the past two decades.

Studies have shown that the practice is still persisting in Nigeria despite an increased awareness and increased general negative attitude towards it. Some interventions, aimed at reducing prevalence and changing attitudes towards FGM in Southeast Nigeria have been innitiated.

As the campaign against FGM continues to gather momentum globally, researchers have focused mainly on the sociocultural, legal and clinical aspects of FGM. Furthermore, as some states in Nigeria like Enugu State have enacted legislations against FGM, it is reasonable to assess the opinion of women for whom these things are being done.

A cross-sectional survey was carried out among women attending the antenatal clinics at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu from 2nd to 20 th February, and Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Awka from 8th to 19 th March, Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Awka primarily serves Anambra state while University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital is a referral centre for the five states in the Southeast geopolitical zone of the country.

The respondents were interviewed using structured pre-tested interviewer- administered questionnaires containing questions to obtain basic sociodemographic characteristics after obtaining their informed verbal consent. The questionnaire was pre-tested among antenatal patients in a private hospital at Enugu-Ezike in Enugu State.

Data was analysed using SPSS version Results were presented in descriptive statistics as percentages. There were respondents. The mean age of the respondents was One hundred and thirteen Sixteen 4. One hundred and eighty four Three hundred and thirty- two One hundred and forty- four Two hundred and eighteen Forty-eight The study was focused on women attending antenatal clinic with a mean age of This is the reproductive age group so their opinion may well reflect the opinion of the target population for campaign against FGM.

Majority of the respondents Abubakar, et al. This is an important finding because practices based on individual conviction are easier to eradicate than those based on culture. The campaign against FGM may well be re-packaged to focus on convincing these women that non-practice of FGM does not have a direct relationship to promiscuity rather than its present emphasis on designating FGM as a bad culture. The implication of this is that advocacy campaigns should be stepped up with more emphasis on educating these women on the harmful effects of FGM.

Another interesting finding is that 1. This erroneous impression they held despite being aware of the campaign against FGM means obviously that more work is needed to get the fact across to this group. The prevalence of female circumcision among the respondents was Forty-nine This is important as previous studies did not highlight this aspect of FGM.

The feeling of incompleteness has the potential of affecting the psyche of these women leading to feelings of physical violation and low self esteem. These may lead to psychosexual problems. This a new dimension that needs to be highlighted by campaigners against FGM. It is heart-warming to note that majority of the respondents The limitations of this study include the over-representation of women with tertiary education In conclusion, FGM viewed by the medical profession and current civilization as injurious to the female gender is still practiced in the Southeast Nigeria.

However, there is a high opinion against the practice in the area with the majority of the women showing support for legislation against it. The practice of FGM may be showing a downward trend as prevalence of daughter circumcision is much lower than that among the respondents. Efforts should be redoubled towards advocacy against this ugly practice. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: Nil.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Ann Med Health Sci Res. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Female genital mutilation is known to exist especially in many third world countries including Nigeria with many women being victims of this harmful practice and its complications.

Objective: To determine women's views on aspects of female genital mutilation and the prevalence among the study population. Method: Women attending the antenatal clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Southeast Nigeria were interviewed by means of structured pre-tested interviewer- administered questionnaires. Results: The prevalence of FGM was Conclusion: There is a high opinion against the practice of FGM in Southeast Nigeria, with the majority of the women showing support for legislation against it.

Keywords: Female genital mutilation, campaign against: Southeast Nigeria. Introduction Female Genital Mutilation FGM or female circumcision is one of those traditional practices whose origin can be traced to antiquity. Methods The respondents were interviewed using structured pre-tested interviewer- administered questionnaires containing questions to obtain basic sociodemographic characteristics after obtaining their informed verbal consent.

Results There were respondents. Table 1 Reason for FGM. Open in a separate window. Table 2 Prevalence of Daughter Circumcision. Discussion The study was focused on women attending antenatal clinic with a mean age of References 1. Aziz FA. Gynecologic and obstetric complications of female circumcision. Int J Gynecol Obstet. Female circumcision: history, medical and psychological complications, and initiatives to eradicate this practice.

Can J Urol. Odoi AT. Female Genital Mutilation. Comprehensive gynaecology in the tropics. Accra: Graphics packaging ltd; Female genital mutilation: knowledge, attitude and practice among nurses.

J Natl Med Assoc. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries. Knowledge, attitude and practice of female genital cutting among antenatal patients in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano.

Niger J Med. Impact of a communication programme on female genital cutting in Eastern Nigeria. Trop Med Int Health. Jirovsky E. Views of women and men in Bobo-Diolasso, Burkina Faso, on three forms of female genital modifications. Reprod Health Matters. Mohammed F. Female genital mutilation: a threat to safe motherhood ignored by health providers. Afr Health.

Female circumcision and determinants in Southern Nigeria. E Afr Med J.

The magnitude of change. Read more. In the 30 countries with nationally representative prevalence data, around 1 in 3 girls aged 15 to 19 today have undergone the practice versus 1 in 2 in the lates. There was a significant difference in length between Caucasians and both Hispanic and Asians East Asians to be exact, those of Chinese, Japanese,Korean or Vietnamese descent. Do you provide written material in your clinic or hospital wards, which would encourage women from refugee or immigrant groups who are experiencing long term effects of FGM, to voluntarily seek treatment?

Genital survey

Genital survey

Genital survey. PENIS SIZE AND RACE

Is it illegal in your country? Don't know. Is there a migrant population in your area of practice, which is known to traditionally perform FGM in their country of origin?

Do you treat women or girls who have undergone the procedure of FGM? If you answer 'no' proceed to Q9 Yes. If you answered Yes to Question 5, approximately how many women or girls with FGM would you treat in a year? Other please specify. Check all that apply. Chronic back or pelvic pain from chronic pelvic infection. Urinary dysfunction. Antenatal post de-infibulation education. Postnatal perineal trauma. Postnatal urinary dysfunction.

Psychological - post-traumatic stress disorder. Social effects e. On examination of women who have undergone the procedure, are you able to classify the type of FGM? Do you believe there are barriers to women seeking treatment for problems resulting from the procedure? If you answered Yes to Question 9, what do you think the barriers are? Lack of education. Lack of support. Financial, if healthcare is not a universal right.

A majority 62 percent of women groom at least weekly, compared to 44 percent of men who groom that often. These small monthly costs can add up. Women 12 percent are much likelier than men 1 percent to wax, and two-thirds 66 percent of women use a razor, compared to 28 percent of men. In follow-up interviews, most men reported that they use an electric trimmer to groom, which amounted to a one-time investment. Women, on the other hand, reported shelling out for razors, cocoa butter, shave gel, and other supplies to keep their pubic area smooth.

And women who opt for waxes will pay significantly more. Many women reported that they experienced pain as a result of shaving with a razor. Bethany R. For some respondents, the perception that grooming is more sanitary was a factor. It seems unhygienic. There is also a wide range of grooming-related injuries to worry about — everything from lacerations to infections to allergic reactions.

A majority 51 percent of respondents — both male and female — reported that they groom their pubic hair because it makes them feel more attractive and only 7 percent cite a partner's preference as the primary reason for hair removal.

Reece H. Some women also see shaving as a liberating act. It makes me feel sexy. Only a small number 3 percent of women and 5 percent of men said they groom because it makes sex better. But in follow-up interviews, a number of respondents reported that they have been asked to groom after their partners got tired of getting hair stuck in their teeth during oral sex. While some women, like Angela C.

This study, reported in The Lancet in [1], provides a wealth of information which shows clearly that women who have undergone FGM are much more likely to suffer obstetric complications at childbirth than women who have not been subject to the procedure. The study, which was conducted in six African countries by a WHO collaborative group, also showed that the risk of obstetric complications was higher when the FGM was more extensive.

A summary is available without registration. A pre-print copy of the full article has been made available by WHO from the link below. Twenty-eight centres in both rural and urban areas were involved in the study. In total, 28 women who attended a centre for the delivery of a baby single births only; multiple births were excluded were included in the study. On admission to the obstetrics centre for delivery, each woman was examined by a trained midwife who determined whether the woman had undergone genital mutilation and, if so, how extensive the procedure had been.

All the women were followed up after delivery until they were discharged from the centre. The study found that, compared with women who had not undergone genital mutilation, those who had undergone types II or III FGM had a significantly greater risk of needing a caesarean section and of suffering postpartum haemorrhage than women who had not had FGM. The proportion of episiotomies was also greater among women with FGM than among those without.

Women with FGM were also more likely than those without to require an extended stay in hospital. Although there was no significant relation between genital mutilation and the risk of having an infant weighing less than g, there was a clear link between FGM and the risk of infant death. The excess infant deaths attributable to FGM ranged from 11 to 17 per deliveries, the researchers say, against a background of perinatal mortality rates of 40—60 per deliveries.

Previous smaller studies have suggested links between FGM and several obstetric complications, but many had flaws such as inconsistent findings, failure to account for potential confounding factors, failure to investigate the possible impact of different types of FGM, and self-reported rather than clinically observed obstetric complications. This six-country study was designed to avoid such flaws and it produced evidence that clearly confirms that FGM endangers health. The study did not investigate just how each obstetric complication is caused.

However, the researchers suggest that since FGM leads to varying amounts of scar tissue which is less elastic than the perineal and vaginal tissue would normally be, this scar tissue may cause differing degrees of obstruction and tears or episiotomy. A second stage of labour that lasts longer than usual may be behind the increased risk of perineal injury, postpartum haemorrhage, resuscitation of the infant, and stillbirth associated with FGM.

The length of the second stage of labour was not consistently measured in the study since good obstetric practice discourages frequent vaginal examinations. There is evidence that FGM is associated with increased rates of genital and urinary-tract infection, which could also have repercussions for obstetric outcomes, the researchers say.

There are high rates of mortality and morbidity among mothers and infants in the six countries where this study was carried out. WHO study group on female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries.

Lancet ; —41 doi Eke N, Nkanginieme K. Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome. Lancet ; doi Sign up for WHO updates. Skip to main content. Search Search the WHO. Menu Sexual and reproductive health What's new?

Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices Health consequences of FGM Summary of research on obstetric problems following female genital mutilation — a survey in six African countries This study, reported in The Lancet in [1], provides a wealth of information which shows clearly that women who have undergone FGM are much more likely to suffer obstetric complications at childbirth than women who have not been subject to the procedure.

WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries. References 1. You are here: Sexual and reproductive health. Email Address.

Genital survey