Discuss differents attitudes models-(PDF) Attitude & its structure | shyam panjwani - faanoos.com

In psychology , attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. It is an individual's predisposed state of mind regarding a value [ disambiguation needed ] and it is precipitated through a responsive expression towards a person, place, thing, or event the attitude object which in turn influences the individual's thought and action. Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport described this latent psychological construct as "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology. An attitude is an evaluation of an attitude object, ranging from extremely negative to extremely positive. Most contemporary perspectives on attitudes permit that people can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object by simultaneously holding both positive and negative attitudes toward the same object.

Attitudes can be difficult to measure because measurement is arbitrary, because attitudes are ultimately a hypothetical construct that cannot be observed directly. Need an account? Parallel Constraint Satisfaction Model is also used to associate objects and its evaluation. During a simulation, actors communicate on Male baby diaper changes actions to the population in which the information is propagated. Affective attitudes are based on the total set of salient beliefs about performing a behavior. In this way this aspect of MCM is more suitable for attitude Daylight hours spokane for a person rather a nonliving object. The next subject is supposed to be briefed, but my assistance who usually does this couldn't come to work today. Case study from field data As was underlined in the introduction, it is very important to confront social simulation models of attitude to concrete scenario and field data, such as opinion polls. As Abelson quoted in Myers said, "we are, apparently, very well trained and very good at finding reasons for what we do, but not very good at doing what we find reasons for. We want to maximize rewards Discuss differents attitudes models minimize penalties.

Favorite adult sites. Some Attitudes Are Stronger Than Others

Researchers also suggest Discuss differents attitudes models there are several different components that make up attitudes. Attitudes are part of the brain's associative networks, the spider-like structures residing in long term memory that consist of affective and cognitive nodes. Society, tradition, and the culture teach individuals what is and what is not acceptable. The theory of Gay soft action TRA is a model for the prediction of behavioral intention, spanning predictions of attitude and predictions of behavior. Attitudes Discuss differents attitudes models help us organize and structure our experience. Ego-Defensive This function involves psychoanalytic principles where people use defense mechanisms to protect themselves from psychological harm. People are more likely to behave according to their attitudes under certain conditions:. We tend to assume that people behave according to their attitudes. Olson For example, if a person is not self-efficacious about their ability to impact the global environment, they are not likely to change their attitude or behavior about global warming. The Guttman scale focuses on items that vary in their degree of psychological difficulty. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior. Psychology: the Science of Behaviour.

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  • In psychology, an attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors toward a particular object, person, thing, or event.
  • By Saul McLeod updated
  • In psychology , attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person.

Lecture 02 - Social Psych. It is a social orientation - an underlying inclination to respond to something either favorably or unfavorably. Cognitive - our thoughts, beliefs, and ideas about something. When a human being is the object of an attitude, the cognitive component is frequently a stereotype, e. Affective - feelings or emotions that something evokes. May dislike welfare recipients. Conative, or behavioral - tendency or disposition to act in certain ways toward something.

Might want to keep welfare recipients out of our neighborhood. Emphasis is on the tendency to act, not the actual acting; what we intend and what we do may be quite different.

Theories of attitude formation and change. Functionalist theory. Daniel Katz proposed a functionalist theory of attitudes. He takes the view that attitudes are determined by the functions they serve for us. People hold given attitudes because these attitudes help them achieve their basic goals. Katz distinguishes four types of psychological functions that attitudes meet. Instrumental - we develop favorable attitudes towards things that aid or reward us. We want to maximize rewards and minimize penalties.

Katz says we develop attitudes that help us meet this goal. We favor political parties that will advance our economic lot - if we are in business, we favor the party that will keep our taxes low, if unemployed we favor one that will increase social welfare benefits.

We are more likely to change our attitudes if doing so allows us to fulfill our goals or avoid undesirable consequences. Knowledge - attitudes provide meaningful, structured environment.

In life we seek some degree of order, clarity, and stability in our personal frame of reference. Attitudes help supply us with standards of evaluation. Via such attitudes as stereotypes, we can bring order and clarity to the complexities of human life. Value-expressive - Express basic values, reinforce self-image. EX: if you view yourself as a Catholic, you can reinforce that image by adopting Catholic beliefs and values.

EX: We may have a self-image of ourselves as an enlightened conservative or a militant radical, and we therefore cultivate attitudes that we believe indicate such a core value. Ego-defensive - Some attitudes serve to protect us from acknowledging basic truths about ourselves or the harsh realities of life.

They serve as defense mechanisms. EX: Those with feelings of inferiority may develop attitude of superiority. Katz's functionalist theory also offers an explanation as to why attitudes change. According to Katz, an attitude changes when it no longer serves its function and the individual feels blocked or frustrated. That is, according to Katz, attitude change is achieved not so much by changing a person's information or perception about an object, but rather by changing the person's underlying motivational and personality needs.

EX: As your social status increases, your attitudes toward your old car may change - you need something that better reflects your new status. For that matter, your attitudes toward your old friends may change as well. Learning theory which stresses attitude formation.

There are several means by which we learn attitudes. Classical conditioning. EX: A father angrily denounces the latest increase in income taxes. A mother happily announces the election of a candidate she worked for. These parents are expressing opinions, but they are also displaying nonverbal behavior that expresses their emotions.

For a child watching the parents, the association between the topic and the nonverbal behavior will become obvious if repeated often enough. And the nonverbal behavior will trigger emotional responses in the child: the child feels upset and disturbed when listening to the father and happy when listening to the mother.

This is an example of classical conditioning: when two stimuli are repeatedly associated, the child learns to respond to them with a similar emotional reaction. In this case, the stimuli are the attitude topic and the parental emotion.

Through repeated association, a formerly neutral stimulus the attitude topic - taxes or politicians begins to elicit an emotional reaction the response that was previously solicited only by another stimulus the parental emotion. Whenever tax increases are mentioned, the child feels an unpleasant emotion; when the elected official is mentioned, the child feels a pleasant emotion.

EX: Pavlov's dogs. Bell was rung when dogs received food. Food made dogs salivate. Then whenever a bell was rung, dogs salivated even when food was not present. EX: When you were a child, parents may have cheered for N. You may not have even known what N. Now N. EX: Men with bow ties. Meet a bad man who wears bow ties, and you may come to hate all bow ties. Also helps explain self-reinforcement.

Instrumental, or operant, conditioning. Behaviors or attitudes that are followed by positive consequences are reinforced and are more likely to be repeated than are behaviors and attitudes that are followed by negative consequences. Observational learning. Children watch the behavior of people around them and imitate what they see.

EX: If a young girl hears her mother denounce all elected officials as crooks, she may repeat that opinion in class the next day. Whether she continues to repeat that opinion depends on the responses of her classmates, teacher, and parents. That is, observations determine the responses we learn, but reinforcement determines the responses we express. Cognitive dissonance theory - stresses attitude change - and that behaviors can determine attitudes.

For example, when we act contrary to our attitudes; or, when we make a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons favoring another. Consistency theories hypothesize that, should inconsistencies develop among cognitions, people are motivated to restore harmony. Dissonance theory says relationships among two cognitions can be either consonant, dissonant, irrelevant. Individual will attempt to reduce or eliminate dissonance - and will try to avoid things that increase dissonance.

Cognitive dissonance can be reduced or eliminated only by a adding new cognitions, or b changing existing ones. EX: Try to discredit source of dissonance in some way - either by making up info or seeking counter-evidence. Informational inconsistency. Receive information that contradicts what they already know or believe. Disconfirmed expectations. People prepare themselves for an event that never occurs - or even worse, an event whose opposite occurs.

EX: You expect to do well on an exam, and you don't. EX: When prophesy fails. In , Marian Keech predicted that a great flood was going to destroy the Western Hemisphere on Dec. She said she got her information from the planet Clarion. She attracted a band of followers, and received further messages about how the faithful could save themselves.

Midnight of the big day came and passed, and nothing happened. At a. Prior to the big day, they were very secretive, and shunned publicity. After the big day, they called the media, sent out press releases, and recruited new followers. Many of these people had quit their jobs, and broken up with their spouses and friends, based on a belief that had been disconfirmed. This produced dissonance. They couldn't deny their past beliefs - they couldn't say the flood had occurred - they couldn't deny they had quit their jobs.

They could have decided they were mistaken, but that would create dissonance with other cognitions, such as their being intelligent people.

Further, if they could convince others to adopt their views, this would affirm their sense that their views were correct.

Insufficient justification for behavior. People do things which they lack justification for. Later they had to carefully remove each peg, and then put them all back. After an hour, they were told they were done. The experimenter then said "We are comparing the performance of subjects who are briefed in advance with those who are not briefed in advance. You did not receive a briefing. The next subject is supposed to be briefed, but my assistance who usually does this couldn't come to work today.

Postdecision dissonance - after every decision, you feel dissonance because you have rejected some good things and accepted some bad. We tend to become more certain of decisions afterwards. EX: Bettors approached after they had placed bets at the racetrack were more sure of their choices than those approached before placing bets.

Stereotypic explanatory bias: Implicit stereotyping as a predictor of discrimination. Archived from the original PDF on The effects of attitudes on behaviors is a growing research enterprise within psychology. For example, surveys show that a third of U. In order to reduce the tension created by these incompatible beliefs, people often shift their attitudes. Whether attitudes are explicit i. Explicit measures tend to rely on self-reports or easily observed behaviors.

Discuss differents attitudes models. Attitude Strength

Attitude strength involves:. If an attitude has a high self-interest for a person i. As a consequence, the attitude will have a very strong influence upon a person's behavior. By contrast, an attitude will not be important to a person if it does not relate in any way to their life. The knowledge aspect of attitude strength covers how much a person knows about the attitude object.

People are generally more knowledgeable about topics that interest them and are likely to hold strong attitudes positive or negative as a consequence. Attitudes based on direct experience are more strongly held and influence behavior more than attitudes formed indirectly for example, through hear-say, reading or watching television.

Attitudes can serve functions for the individual. Daniel Katz outlines four functional areas:. Attitudes provide meaning knowledge for life. The knowledge function refers to our need for a world which is consistent and relatively stable.

This allows us to predict what is likely to happen, and so gives us a sense of control. Attitudes can help us organize and structure our experience. For example, knowing that a person is religious we can predict they will go to Church. The attitudes we express 1 help communicate who we are and 2 may make us feel good because we have asserted our identity. Self-expression of attitudes can be non-verbal too: think bumper sticker, cap, or T-shirt slogan.

Therefore, our attitudes are part of our identify, and help us to be aware through the expression of our feelings, beliefs and values. For example, when people flatter their bosses or instructors and believe it or keep silent if they think an attitude is unpopular. Again, expression can be nonverbal [think politician kissing baby]. Attitudes then, are to do with being apart of a social group and the adaptive functions helps us fit in with a social group.

People seek out others who share their attitudes, and develop similar attitudes to those they like. The ego-defensive function refers to holding attitudes that protect our self-esteem or that justify actions that make us feel guilty. For example, one way children might defend themselves against the feelings of humiliation they have experienced in P.

This function has psychiatric overtones. Positive attitudes towards ourselves, for example, have a protective function i. The basic idea behind the functional approach is that attitudes help a person to mediate between their own inner needs expression, defense and the outside world adaptive and knowledge. Eagly, A. The psychology of attitudes. A person's attitude also depends on issues such as his salary, status, work environment, work as such, etc. The classic, tripartite view offered by Rosenberg and Hovland [13] is that an attitude contains cognitive, affective, and behavioral components.

Empirical research, however, fails to support clear distinctions between thoughts, emotions, and behavioral intentions associated with a particular attitude. Thus some views of attitude structure see the cognitive and behavioral components as derivative of affect or affect and behavior as derivative of underlying beliefs. Despite debate about the particular structure of attitudes, there is considerable evidence that attitudes reflect more than evaluations of a particular object that vary from positive to negative.

These ABC components of attitudes formulate, define, and contribute to an overall construct of Monetary Intelligence which, in turn, may be related to many theoretical work-related constructs.

There is also a considerable interest in intra-attitudinal and inter-attitudinal structure, which is how an attitude is made expectancy and value and how different attitudes relate to one another. Which connects different attitudes to one another and to more underlying psychological structures, such as values or ideology.

An influential model of attitude is the multicomponent model, where attitudes are evaluations of an object that have affective, behavioral, and cognitive components the ABC model : [22]. This is the theory of attitude evaluation m otivation and o pportunity as de terminants of the attitude - behavior relation.

When both are present, behavior will be deliberate. When one is absent, impact on behavior will be spontaneous. A person's attitude can be measured in two different ways:. Explicit measure are attitudes at the conscious level, that are deliberately formed and easy to self-report. Implicit measures are attitudes that are at an unconscious level, that are involuntarily formed and are typically unknown to us. Implicit attitudes, however, are most likely to affect behavior when the demands are steep and an individual feels stressed or distracted.

Another classic view of attitudes is that attitudes serve particular functions for individuals. That is, researchers have tried to understand why individuals hold particular attitudes or why they hold attitudes in general by considering how attitudes affect the individuals who hold them.

As an example, the "ego-defensive" function might be used to influence the racially prejudicial attitudes of an individual who sees themselves as open-minded and tolerant.

By appealing to that individual's image of themselves as tolerant and open-minded, it may be possible to change their prejudicial attitudes to be more consistent with their self-concept.

Similarly, a persuasive message that threatens self-image is much more likely to be rejected. Utilitarian People adopt attitudes that are rewarding and that help them avoid punishment.

In other words, any attitude that is adopted in a person's own self-interest is considered to serve a utilitarian function. Consider you have a condo, people with condos pay property taxes, and as a result you don't want to pay more taxes. If those factors lead to your attitude that "increases in property taxes are bad" your attitude is serving a utilitarian function. Knowledge People need to maintain an organized, meaningful, and stable view of the world.

That being said important values and general principles can provide a framework for our knowledge. Attitudes achieve this goal by making things fit together and make sense. Ego-Defensive This function involves psychoanalytic principles where people use defense mechanisms to protect themselves from psychological harm.

Mechanisms include:. The ego-defensive notion correlates nicely with Downward Comparison Theory which holds the view that derogating a less fortunate other increases our own subjective well-being.

We are more likely to use the ego-defensive function when we suffer a frustration or misfortune. According to Doob , learning can account for most of the attitudes we hold.

The study of attitude formation is the study of how people form evaluations of persons, places or things. Theories of classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning and social learning are mainly responsible for formation of attitude. Unlike personality , attitudes are expected to change as a function of experience.

In addition, exposure to the 'attitude' objects may have an effect on how a person forms his or her attitude. This concept was seen as the "Mere-Exposure Effect". Robert Zajonc showed that people were more likely to have a positive attitude on 'attitude objects' when they were exposed to it frequently than if they were not.

Mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus is a sufficient condition for the enhancement of his attitude toward it. For example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistent in our beliefs and values.

As with any type of heritability, to determine if a particular trait has a basis in our genes, twin studies are used. Attitudes can be changed through persuasion and an important domain of research on attitude change focuses on responses to communication.

Experimental research into the factors that can affect the persuasiveness of a message include:. Emotion is a common component in persuasion , social influence , and attitude change. Much of attitude research emphasized the importance of affective or emotion components. Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages.

Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism. Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and cognitive components. Attitudes are part of the brain's associative networks, the spider-like structures residing in long term memory that consist of affective and cognitive nodes.

By activating an affective or emotion node, attitude change may be possible, though affective and cognitive components tend to be intertwined. In primarily affective networks, it is more difficult to produce cognitive counterarguments in the resistance to persuasion and attitude change.

Affective forecasting , otherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitude change. Research suggests that predicting emotions is an important component of decision making, in addition to the cognitive processes. How we feel about an outcome may override purely cognitive rationales. In terms of research methodology, the challenge for researchers is measuring emotion and subsequent impacts on attitude.

Since we cannot see into the brain, various models and measurement tools have been constructed to obtain emotion and attitude information.

Measures may include the use of physiological cues like facial expressions, vocal changes, and other body rate measures. For instance, fear is associated with raised eyebrows, increased heart rate and increase body tension Dillard, Other methods include concept or network mapping, and using primes or word cues in the era.

Any discrete emotion can be used in a persuasive appeal; this may include jealousy, disgust, indignation, fear, blue, disturbed, haunted, and anger. Fear is one of the most studied emotional appeals in communication and social influence research. Important consequences of fear appeals and other emotion appeals include the possibility of reactance which may lead to either message rejections or source rejection and the absence of attitude change.

As the EPPM suggests, there is an optimal emotion level in motivating attitude change. If there is not enough motivation, an attitude will not change; if the emotional appeal is overdone, the motivation can be paralyzed thereby preventing attitude change. Emotions perceived as negative or containing threat are often studied more than perceived positive emotions like humor. Though the inner-workings of humor are not agreed upon, humor appeals may work by creating incongruities in the mind.

Recent research has looked at the impact of humor on the processing of political messages. While evidence is inconclusive, there appears to be potential for targeted attitude change is receivers with low political message involvement.

Self efficacy is a perception of one's own human agency; in other words, it is the perception of our own ability to deal with a situation. It is an important variable in emotion appeal messages because it dictates a person's ability to deal with both the emotion and the situation.

For example, if a person is not self-efficacious about their ability to impact the global environment, they are not likely to change their attitude or behavior about global warming. Dillard suggests that message features such as source non-verbal communication, message content, and receiver differences can impact the emotion impact of fear appeals. The characteristics of a message are important because one message can elicit different levels of emotion for different people.

Thus, in terms of emotion appeals messages, one size does not fit all. Attitude accessibility refers to the activation of an attitude from memory in other words, how readily available is an attitude about an object, issue, or situation. Issue involvement is the relevance and salience of an issue or situation to an individual. Issue involvement has been correlated with both attitude access and attitude strength. Past studies conclude accessible attitudes are more resistant to change.

The effects of attitudes on behaviors is a growing research enterprise within psychology. Icek Ajzen has led research and helped develop two prominent theoretical approaches within this field: the theory of reasoned action [33] and, its theoretical descendant, the theory of planned behavior.

The theory of reasoned action TRA is a model for the prediction of behavioral intention, spanning predictions of attitude and predictions of behavior. The subsequent separation of behavioral intention from behavior allows for explanation of limiting factors on attitudinal influence Ajzen, The theory of reasoned action was developed by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen , , derived from previous research that started out as the theory of attitude, which led to the study of attitude and behavior.

The theory of planned behavior was proposed by Icek Ajzen in through his article "From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. The theory of reasoned action was in turn grounded in various theories of attitude such as learning theories, expectancy-value theories, consistency theories, and attribution theory. According to the theory of reasoned action, if people evaluate the suggested behavior as positive attitude , and if they think their significant others want them to perform the behavior subjective norm , this results in a higher intention motivation and they are more likely to do so.

A high correlation of attitudes and subjective norms to behavioral intention, and subsequently to behavior, has been confirmed in many studies. The theory of planned behavior contains the same component as the theory of reasoned action, but adds the component of perceived behavioral control to account for barriers outside one's own control. Russell H. Fazio believes that because there is deliberative process happening, individuals must be motivated to reflect on their attitudes and subsequent behaviors.

A counter-argument against the high relationship between behavioral intention and actual behavior has also been proposed, as the results of some studies show that, because of circumstantial limitations, behavioral intention does not always lead to actual behavior.

Namely, since behavioral intention cannot be the exclusive determinant of behavior where an individual's control over the behavior is incomplete, Ajzen introduced the theory of planned behavior by adding a new component, "perceived behavioral control. In Louis Leon Thurstone published an article titled "Attitudes Can Be Measured" in it he proposed an elaborate procedure to assess people's views on social issues.

Attitudes can be difficult to measure because measurement is arbitrary, because attitudes are ultimately a hypothetical construct that cannot be observed directly. But many measurements and evidence proofed scales are used to examine attitudes.

A Likert scale taps agreement or disagreement with a series of belief statements. The Guttman scale focuses on items that vary in their degree of psychological difficulty.

The semantic differential uses bipolar adjectives to measure the meaning associated with attitude objects. Supplementing these are several indirect techniques such as unobtrusive, standard physiological, and neuroscientific measures. Whether attitudes are explicit i.

Research on implicit attitudes , which are generally unacknowledged or outside of awareness, uses sophisticated methods involving people's response times to stimuli to show that implicit attitudes exist perhaps in tandem with explicit attitudes of the same object. Implicit and explicit attitudes seem to affect people's behavior, though in different ways.

They tend not to be strongly associated with each other, although in some cases they are. The relationship between them is poorly understood. Explicit measures tend to rely on self-reports or easily observed behaviors.

Exploring Attitudes – Principles of Social Psychology – 1st International Edition

In psychology , attitude is a psychological construct, a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. It is an individual's predisposed state of mind regarding a value [ disambiguation needed ] and it is precipitated through a responsive expression towards a person, place, thing, or event the attitude object which in turn influences the individual's thought and action. Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport described this latent psychological construct as "the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology.

An attitude is an evaluation of an attitude object, ranging from extremely negative to extremely positive. Most contemporary perspectives on attitudes permit that people can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object by simultaneously holding both positive and negative attitudes toward the same object.

This has led to some discussion of whether individual can hold multiple attitudes toward the same object. An attitude can be a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, events, activities, and ideas. It could be concrete, abstract or just about anything in your environment, but there is a debate about precise definitions.

Eagly and Chaiken, for example, define an attitude as "a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor.

The durability and impactfulness of influence depend upon the strength formed from consistency of heuristics. Jung's definition of attitude is a "readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way". Within this broad definition Jung defines several attitudes. In addition, Jung discusses the abstract attitude. By this I mean a peculiarity of thinking and feeling which is the antithesis of abstraction".

The attitude of a person is determined by psychological factors like ideas, values, beliefs, perception, etc. All these have a complex role in determining a person's attitude. Beliefs can be patently and unequivocally false. For example, surveys show that a third of U. Another important factor that affects attitude is symbolic interactionism , these are rife with powerful symbols and charged with affect which can lead to a selective perception. Family plays a significant role in the primary stage of attitudes held by individuals.

Initially, a person develops certain attitudes from his parents, brothers, sister, and elders in the family. There is a high degree of relationship between parent and children in attitudes found in them. Societies play an important role in formatting the attitudes of an individual. The culture, the tradition, the language, etc. Society, tradition, and the culture teach individuals what is and what is not acceptable. A person's attitude also depends on issues such as his salary, status, work environment, work as such, etc.

The classic, tripartite view offered by Rosenberg and Hovland [13] is that an attitude contains cognitive, affective, and behavioral components. Empirical research, however, fails to support clear distinctions between thoughts, emotions, and behavioral intentions associated with a particular attitude.

Thus some views of attitude structure see the cognitive and behavioral components as derivative of affect or affect and behavior as derivative of underlying beliefs. Despite debate about the particular structure of attitudes, there is considerable evidence that attitudes reflect more than evaluations of a particular object that vary from positive to negative.

These ABC components of attitudes formulate, define, and contribute to an overall construct of Monetary Intelligence which, in turn, may be related to many theoretical work-related constructs. There is also a considerable interest in intra-attitudinal and inter-attitudinal structure, which is how an attitude is made expectancy and value and how different attitudes relate to one another. Which connects different attitudes to one another and to more underlying psychological structures, such as values or ideology.

An influential model of attitude is the multicomponent model, where attitudes are evaluations of an object that have affective, behavioral, and cognitive components the ABC model : [22]. This is the theory of attitude evaluation m otivation and o pportunity as de terminants of the attitude - behavior relation. When both are present, behavior will be deliberate. When one is absent, impact on behavior will be spontaneous. A person's attitude can be measured in two different ways:. Explicit measure are attitudes at the conscious level, that are deliberately formed and easy to self-report.

Implicit measures are attitudes that are at an unconscious level, that are involuntarily formed and are typically unknown to us. Implicit attitudes, however, are most likely to affect behavior when the demands are steep and an individual feels stressed or distracted. Another classic view of attitudes is that attitudes serve particular functions for individuals. That is, researchers have tried to understand why individuals hold particular attitudes or why they hold attitudes in general by considering how attitudes affect the individuals who hold them.

As an example, the "ego-defensive" function might be used to influence the racially prejudicial attitudes of an individual who sees themselves as open-minded and tolerant. By appealing to that individual's image of themselves as tolerant and open-minded, it may be possible to change their prejudicial attitudes to be more consistent with their self-concept.

Similarly, a persuasive message that threatens self-image is much more likely to be rejected. Utilitarian People adopt attitudes that are rewarding and that help them avoid punishment. In other words, any attitude that is adopted in a person's own self-interest is considered to serve a utilitarian function.

Consider you have a condo, people with condos pay property taxes, and as a result you don't want to pay more taxes. If those factors lead to your attitude that "increases in property taxes are bad" your attitude is serving a utilitarian function.

Knowledge People need to maintain an organized, meaningful, and stable view of the world. That being said important values and general principles can provide a framework for our knowledge. Attitudes achieve this goal by making things fit together and make sense. Ego-Defensive This function involves psychoanalytic principles where people use defense mechanisms to protect themselves from psychological harm.

Mechanisms include:. The ego-defensive notion correlates nicely with Downward Comparison Theory which holds the view that derogating a less fortunate other increases our own subjective well-being. We are more likely to use the ego-defensive function when we suffer a frustration or misfortune. According to Doob , learning can account for most of the attitudes we hold. The study of attitude formation is the study of how people form evaluations of persons, places or things.

Theories of classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning and social learning are mainly responsible for formation of attitude. Unlike personality , attitudes are expected to change as a function of experience. In addition, exposure to the 'attitude' objects may have an effect on how a person forms his or her attitude. This concept was seen as the "Mere-Exposure Effect". Robert Zajonc showed that people were more likely to have a positive attitude on 'attitude objects' when they were exposed to it frequently than if they were not.

Mere repeated exposure of the individual to a stimulus is a sufficient condition for the enhancement of his attitude toward it. For example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistent in our beliefs and values. As with any type of heritability, to determine if a particular trait has a basis in our genes, twin studies are used.

Attitudes can be changed through persuasion and an important domain of research on attitude change focuses on responses to communication. Experimental research into the factors that can affect the persuasiveness of a message include:. Emotion is a common component in persuasion , social influence , and attitude change. Much of attitude research emphasized the importance of affective or emotion components.

Emotion works hand-in-hand with the cognitive process, or the way we think, about an issue or situation. Emotional appeals are commonly found in advertising, health campaigns and political messages. Recent examples include no-smoking health campaigns and political campaign advertising emphasizing the fear of terrorism. Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of cognitive, affective and cognitive components. Attitudes are part of the brain's associative networks, the spider-like structures residing in long term memory that consist of affective and cognitive nodes.

By activating an affective or emotion node, attitude change may be possible, though affective and cognitive components tend to be intertwined. In primarily affective networks, it is more difficult to produce cognitive counterarguments in the resistance to persuasion and attitude change.

Affective forecasting , otherwise known as intuition or the prediction of emotion, also impacts attitude change. Research suggests that predicting emotions is an important component of decision making, in addition to the cognitive processes.

How we feel about an outcome may override purely cognitive rationales. In terms of research methodology, the challenge for researchers is measuring emotion and subsequent impacts on attitude. Since we cannot see into the brain, various models and measurement tools have been constructed to obtain emotion and attitude information. Measures may include the use of physiological cues like facial expressions, vocal changes, and other body rate measures.

For instance, fear is associated with raised eyebrows, increased heart rate and increase body tension Dillard, Other methods include concept or network mapping, and using primes or word cues in the era.

Any discrete emotion can be used in a persuasive appeal; this may include jealousy, disgust, indignation, fear, blue, disturbed, haunted, and anger. Fear is one of the most studied emotional appeals in communication and social influence research. Important consequences of fear appeals and other emotion appeals include the possibility of reactance which may lead to either message rejections or source rejection and the absence of attitude change.

As the EPPM suggests, there is an optimal emotion level in motivating attitude change. If there is not enough motivation, an attitude will not change; if the emotional appeal is overdone, the motivation can be paralyzed thereby preventing attitude change.

Emotions perceived as negative or containing threat are often studied more than perceived positive emotions like humor. Though the inner-workings of humor are not agreed upon, humor appeals may work by creating incongruities in the mind. Recent research has looked at the impact of humor on the processing of political messages. While evidence is inconclusive, there appears to be potential for targeted attitude change is receivers with low political message involvement.

Self efficacy is a perception of one's own human agency; in other words, it is the perception of our own ability to deal with a situation. It is an important variable in emotion appeal messages because it dictates a person's ability to deal with both the emotion and the situation. For example, if a person is not self-efficacious about their ability to impact the global environment, they are not likely to change their attitude or behavior about global warming. Dillard suggests that message features such as source non-verbal communication, message content, and receiver differences can impact the emotion impact of fear appeals.